İstanbul University
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istanbul


ISTANBUL


İstanbul is the largest city in Turkey 8 1, constituting the country's economic, cultural, and historical heart. With a population of 14.1 million, the city forms one of the largest urban agglomerations in Europe 2, second largest in the Middle East 3 and the third-largest city in the world 4 by population within city limits.


Founded on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BC as Byzantium, the city now known as Istanbul developed to become one of the most significant cities in history. For nearly sixteen centuries following its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 AD, it served as the capital of four empires: the Roman Empire (330–395), the Byzantine Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin Empire (1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922).[5] It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the last caliphate.[6] Although the Republic of Turkey established its capital in Ankara, palaces and imperial mosques still line Istanbul's hills as visible reminders of the city's previous central role.


dolmabahce

Dolmabahçe Palace was ordered by the Empire's 31st Sultan, Abdülmecid I, and built between the years 1843 and 1856. The design contains eclectic elements from the Baroque, Rococo and Neoclassical styles, blended with traditional Ottoman rchitecture to create a new synthesis. The palace layout and décor reflect the increasing influence of European styles and standards on Ottoman culture and art during the Tanzimat period.


Dolmabahçe Palace was home to six Sultans from 1856, when it was first inhabited, up until the abolition of the Caliphate in 1924: The last royal to live here was Caliph Abdülmecid Efendi. A law that went into effect on March 3, 1924 transferred the ownership of the palace to the national heritage of the new Turkish Republic. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey, used the palace as a presidential residence during the summers and enacted some of his most important works here. Atatürk spent the last days of his medical treatment in this palace, where he died on November 10, 1938.


rumeli_hisari

Rumelihisarı is a fortress 5 located in the Sarıyer 6 district of Istanbul 7,Turkey 8 1, on a hill at the European 9 side of the Bosphorus 10. It gives the name of the quarter around it. It was built by the Ottoman 11 Sultan 12Mehmed II 13 between 1451 and 1452, before he conquered Constantinople 14. The three great towers were named after three of Mehmed II's viziers, Sadrazam ÇandarlıHalil Pasha 15, who built the big tower next to the gate, Zağanos Pasha 16, who built the south tower, and Sarıca Pasha, who built the north tower.

galata-kulesi

The Galata Tower called Christea Turris (the Tower of Christ in Latin) by the Genoese — is a medieval stone tower in the Galata/Karaköy quarter of Istanbul, Turkey, just to the north of the Golden Horn's junction with the Bosphorus. One of the city's most striking landmarks, it is a high, cone-capped cylinder that dominates the skyline and offers a panoramic vista of Istanbul's historic peninsula and its environs.


topkapisarayi


The Topkapı Palace is a large palace in Istanbul, Turkey, that was the primary residence of the Ottoman Sultans for approximately 400 years (1465-1856) of their 624-year reign.

As well as a royal residence, the palace was a setting for state occasions and royal entertainments. It is now a major tourist attraction and contains important holy relics of the Muslim world, including Muhammed's SAW cloak and sword. The Topkapı Palace is among the monuments contained within the "Historic Areas of Istanbul", which became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985.


bosphorus

The Bosporus is a strait that forms part of the boundary between Europe and Asia. The Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles strait to the southwest together form the Turkish Straits.
The world's narrowest strait used for international navigation, the Bosporus connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara (which is connected by the Dardanelles to the Aegean Sea, and thereby to the Mediterranean Sea).

kiz-kulesi

The Maiden's Tower, also known as Leander's Tower (Tower of Leandros) since the medieval Byzantine period, is a tower lying on a small islet located at the southern entrance of the Bosphorus strait 200 m from the coast of Üsküdar in Istanbul, Turkey.


After the naval victory at Cyzicus, the Ancient Athenian general Alcibiades possibly built a custom station for ships coming from the Black Sea on a small rock in front of Chrysopolis (today's Üsküdar). In 1110 Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus built a wooden tower protected by a stone wall.
From the tower an iron chain stretched across to another tower erected on the European shore, at the quarter of Mangana in Constantinople.


The islet was then connected to the Asiatic shore through a defense wall, whose underwater remains are still visible during the siege of Constantinople in 1453, the tower held a Byzantine Garrison commanded by the Venetian Gabriele Trevisano. After the conquest of the city, Sultan Mehmet II used the structure as a watch tower.
Links:
  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkey
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Largest_cities_in_Eur ope
  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_East
  4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_proper _by_population
  5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortress
  6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sar%C4%B1yer
  7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istanbul
  8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkey
  9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europe
  10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bosphorus
  11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire
  12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sultan
  13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehmed_II
  14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantinople
  15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%87andarl%C4%B1_(2 nd)_Halil_Pasha
  16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Za%C4%9Fanos_Pasha
Post date: 2017-05-08 11:13:58
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